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明广辉, 程 欢, 毕黎明, 谭培影, 季小兵, 邓海军.1955—2020年博斯腾湖水盐收支估算与水盐平衡分析水资源与水工程学报[J].,2024,35(2):21-31
1955—2020年博斯腾湖水盐收支估算与水盐平衡分析
Water-salt budget estimation and equilibrium analysis of Bosten Lake from 1955 to 2020
  
DOI:10.11705/j.issn.1672-643X.2024.02.03
中文关键词:  水盐收支平衡  矿化度  扬水泵站  孔雀河  开都河  博斯腾湖
英文关键词:water and salt balance  salinity  pumping station  Kongqi River  Kaidu River  Bosten Lake
基金项目:第三次新疆综合科学考察项目(2022xjkk0105); 国家自然科学基金青年项目(52109031); 河南省博士后科研项目(202103105)
作者单位
明广辉1,2, 程 欢3, 毕黎明1,2, 谭培影1,2, 季小兵4, 邓海军5 (1.黄河勘测规划设计研究院有限公司 河南 郑州 450003 2.水利部黄河流域水治理与水安全重点实验室河南 郑州 450003 3.西安理工大学 省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室 陕西 西安 710048 4.新疆维吾尔自治区塔里木河流域管理局巴音郭楞管理局 新疆 库尔勒 8410005.福建师范大学 地理科学学院 福建 福州 350007) 
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中文摘要:
      为了探讨变化环境下开都河来水、人类水土开发和水利工程调节等对博斯腾湖水盐收支变化规律的影响,根据开都-孔雀河流域河流-湖泊-水利工程间的水力联系及水盐运移转化过程,构建了博斯腾湖水盐收支平衡模型,基于1955—2020年气象、水文、矿化度、开发利用的观测资料,分析了博斯腾湖逐年、分阶段和多年平均水盐收支变化规律。结果表明,受开都河来水和人类活动的影响,1955—2020年博斯腾湖水盐变化具有明显的4阶段特征。1987年以来水盐变化速率明显升高;焉耆盆地和孔雀河引水量较为稳定,开都河入湖水量占总入湖水量的81.89%,在1955—2020年博斯腾湖水位变化中起主导作用;1955—1987年农田排盐量占总入湖盐量的37.24%,其中1972—1986年农田排盐量接近总入湖盐量的50%,农田排盐量是湖水矿化度急剧升高的主要原因;1983年博斯腾湖西泵站运行后,湖水矿化度整体处于下降趋势,2020年降低到1.0 g/L以下。新时期在对开都-孔雀河流域严格遵守水资源三条红线控制的同时,加强扬水泵站、宝浪苏木分水闸及达吾提闸的联合运行,完全可以将湖水矿化度控制在1.0 g/L水平以下。研究结论可为博斯腾湖可持续利用和管理提供参考。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the impact of Kaidu River inflow, land and water resources exploitation, and hydraulic engineering regulation on the changes of water and salt balance in Bosten Lake under changing environments, the water-salt budget model of Bosten Lake was constructed according to the hydraulic connections and water-salt transport process between rivers, lakes and water conservancy projects. Based on the systematic observation data of meteorology, hydrology, salinity and human activities from 1955 to 2020, the annual, phased and multi-year water-salt budget were analyzed. The results show that under the influence of Kaidu River inflow and human activities, the water and salinity of Bosten Lake from 1955 to 2020 showed the variation characteristics of four phases, and the water and salinity variation rate has increased since 1987. In terms of inflow, the water diversion from the Yanqi Basin and Kongqi River was relatively stable, and Kaidu River inflow accounted for 81.89% of the total inflow of the lake, which played a leading role in the variation of water level of Bosten Lake for the last 70 years. The salt drainage of farmland accounted for 37.24% of the total salt intake of the lake during 1955-1987, and that during 1972-1986 accounted for nearly 50%. Salt drainage of farmland was mainly responsible for the rapid increase in lake salinity. After the operation of Bosten Lake water pumping station in 1983, the salinity of the lake water decreased as a whole, which dropped below 1g/L in 2020. Besides the strict control of water resources in the Kaidu-Kongqi River Basin in the new era, it is suggested that the joint operation of the pumping station, Baolang Sumu diversion brake, and Dawuti brake should be fully leveraged in the future, thereby maintaining the salinity of Bosten Lake below 1g/L. The research findings can provide a foundation for the sustainable utilization and management of Bosten Lake.
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