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王梓宇, 乔晓英, 安宇廷, 冯泽超.黄河流域甘肃段河道生态需水阈值的探讨水资源与水工程学报[J].,2023,34(2):81-90
黄河流域甘肃段河道生态需水阈值的探讨
Exploration of ecological water demand thresholds for rivers in Gansu section of the Yellow River Basin
  
DOI:10.11705/j.issn.1672-643X.2023.02.10
中文关键词:  生态需水阈值  基本生态流量  目标生态流量  动态评价  黄河流域甘肃段
英文关键词:ecological water demand threshold  basic ecological flow  target ecological flow  dynamic evaluation  Gansu section of the Yellow River Basin
基金项目:陕西省重点研发计划项目(2021ZDLSF05-03)
作者单位
王梓宇1, 乔晓英1,2, 安宇廷3, 冯泽超1 (1.长安大学 水利与环境学院 陕西 西安 710054 2.旱区地下水文与生态效应教育部重点实验室陕西 西安 710054 3.西安黄河规划设计有限公司 陕西 西安 710021) 
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中文摘要:
      研究河道生态需水阈值对于提升河流生态系统多样性、稳定性、持续性及河道生态需水管理具有重要意义。针对黄河流域甘肃段河流断流、水污染严重及泥沙含量高等水与生态环境问题,依据30个水文站1956—2016年的河流月径流资料,采用年内展布计算法确定生态基流量,并与自净需水量、输沙需水量按照“取大”原则整合为基本生态流量;采用逐月频率计算法确定目标生态流量。综合基本生态流量与目标生态流量分布特征,获得年内河道生态需水阈值,对其进行等级评价并分析满足程度。结果表明:年内水量较枯、较丰时段黄河干流河道生态需水阈值分别为74.78~393.29 m3/s、595.35~1 108.84 m3/s;玛曲至上诠段支流分别为8.97~26.81 m3/s、30.16~156.20 m3/s;上诠至安宁渡段支流分别为0.64~11.93 m3/s、3.50~124.61m3/s;安宁渡以下段支流分别为5.67~7.76 m3/s、14.77~30.53 m3/s。河道生态需水阈值评价等级在年内水量较枯、较丰时段分别位于“一般—最佳”、“很好—最佳”;其满足程度在年内各个时段祖厉河、马莲河皆未超过67%,在水量较丰时段大通河、庄浪河未超过50%。研究成果对于研究区河道生态需水管理具有可操作性,可为黄河上游水源涵养及水资源优化配置提供一定的科学依据。
英文摘要:
      The study of ecological water demand thresholds is important for improving the diversity, stability, and sustainability of river ecosystems and the management of river ecological water demand. In response to water and ecological environmental problems such as river cutoff, severe water pollution, and high sediment content in the Gansu section of the Yellow River Basin, the ecological base flow is calculated using annual distribution method based on the monthly runoff data from 30 hydrological stations from 1956 to 2016, and then integrated with the water demand of self-purification and the sediment transport to form the basic ecological flow according to the principle of “taking the big one”. Meanwhile, the target ecological flow is determined by the month-by-month frequency calculation method. Finally, the distribution characteristics of the basic ecological flow and target ecological flow are integrated to obtain the annual ecological water demand thresholds for the rivers, which are then graded and evaluated to ascertain the degree of satisfaction. The results show that the ecological water demand thresholds of the mainstream of the Yellow River during the dry and wet periods of the year are 74.78-393.29 m3/s and 595.35-1, 108.84 m3/s; the tributaries in the section from Maqu to Shangquan are 8.97-26.81 m3/s and 30.16-156.20 m3/s; the tributaries in the section from Shangquan to Anningdu are 0.64-11.93 m3/s and 3.50-124.61 m3/s; the tributaries in the section below Anningdu are 5.67-7.76 m3/s and 14.77-30.53 m3/s, respectively. The ecological water demand thresholds of the rivers are graded as “fair-best” and “very good-best” during the dry and wet periods of the year, respectively; their satisfaction levels of the year were less than 67% for the Zuli and Malian Rivers, and less than 50% for the Datong and Zhuanglang Rivers during the wet periods of the year. The results of the study is conducive to the management of ecological water demand of the rivers and can provide a technical support for the water conservation and optimal allocation of water resources in the upper reaches of the Yellow River.
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