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谷红梅, 朱志鹏, 王鸿翔 ,郭文献.1956-2019年乌江水文情势变化及其对鱼类的影响研究水资源与水工程学报[J].,2022,33(4):24-31
1956-2019年乌江水文情势变化及其对鱼类的影响研究
Hydrological regime change and its influence on fish in Wujiang River from 1956 to 2019
  
DOI:10.11705/j.issn.1672-643X.2022.04.04
中文关键词:  水文改变度  水文情势  IHA-RVA法  鱼类变化  乌江
英文关键词:hydrologic change degree  hydrological regime  IHA-RVA method  fish change  the Wujiang River
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51679090、51609085、51779094); 2016年度河南省高校科技创新人才支持计划(16HASTIT024); 贵州省水利厅2020年度水利科技项目(KT202008)
作者单位
谷红梅, 朱志鹏, 王鸿翔 ,郭文献 (华北水利水电大学 河南 郑州 450045) 
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中文摘要:
      水量变化导致河流生态水文情势发生改变,进而影响河流生态系统健康。为深入明晰乌江干流水文变异前后水文情势变化对鱼类生境的影响,选取武隆水文站1956-2019年逐日流量数据及2009-2015年12种漂流性鱼类产卵量资料,采用曼-肯德尔 (M-K)检验法、累积距平法研究乌江干流变异节点,分析突变前、后逐日流量的变化趋势,通过生态水文指标变化范围法(IHA-RVA)综合评价乌江32组水文指标特征及改变度,基于水文情势变化下研究鱼类数量变化过程。结果表明:乌江流量突变年份为2009年,与彭水水电站的运行时间相同,变异后,多年平均日流量峰值波动于15 000 m3/s,而变异前流量峰值接近18 000 m3/s。乌江32组水文指标整体改变度为38.7%,处于中度变化范围;属于高度改变的低流量历时和次数改变度分别为74.64%、75.29%,发生时间推迟4 d;高流量历时和次数改变度分别为29.79%、37.83%,发生时间提前21 d。降雨与流量呈极强正相关,降雨量的逐年减少对流量有重要影响。此外,水文情势的变化易受彭水水电站的影响。流量减少和变化下的水文情势对鱼类的影响是一个累积的过程,2009年后12种漂流性卵鱼类的产卵总量大幅减少,尤以2011年最为突出,仅为1 541.69×104粒。本研究可为研判乌江水文情势变化过程及制定水生态修复措施提供参考。
英文摘要:
      Water flow changes lead to changes in river eco-hydrological regime, and then affect the health of river ecosystems. In order to clarify the effects of hydrologic alterations on fish habitat in the Wujiang River mainstream, daily flow data from 1956 to 2019 and spawning data of 12 drifting fish species from 2009 to 2015 were selected from the record in the Wulong Hydrological Station. The Mann-Kendall(M-K) test and the cumulative anomaly method were used to study the abrupt changes in the Wujiang River mainstream, in order to analyze the change trend of daily flow before and after the abrupt changes. Then the characteristics and change degree of 32 sets of hydrological indexes were evaluated using indicators of hydrologic alteration-range of variability approach (IHA-RVA) method, so as to study the fish population change process under the change of hydrological regimes. The results show that the abrupt change in the Wujiang River flow occurred in 2009, which is the same as the operation time of Pengshui Hydropower Station. After the abrupt change, the average daily peak flow fluctuated around 15, 000 m3/s, which was close to 18, 000 m3/s, the daily peak flow before the abrupt change. Furthermore, the overall change degree of 32 sets of hydrological indexes was 38.7%, which fell into the moderate range. The duration and frequency of low flow with high change range were 74.64% and 75.29% respectively, and the occurrence time was delayed by 4 days; whereas those of the high flow was 29.79% and 37.83% respectively, and the occurrence time was 21 days ahead. It is found that rainfall was positively correlated with discharge with great significance, so the annual decrease of rainfall had seriously affected the discharge. In addition, the variation of hydrological regimes is easily affected by Pengshui Hydropower Station. However, the impact of the hydrological regime change and reduced flow on fish is a cumulative process, the spawning scale of the 12 drifting fish species started to decrease from 2009, then dropped dramatically in 2011, which was only accounted for 15, 416, 900 eggs. These findings can provide a reference for the study of hydrological regime change process of the Wujiang River and the formulation of water ecological restoration measures.
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