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毛海涛, 王正成, 林 荣, 邹 敏.三峡水库蓄水后上下游河段水沙特性变化及影响因素分析水资源与水工程学报[J].,2019,30(5):161-169
三峡水库蓄水后上下游河段水沙特性变化及影响因素分析
Analysis of water-sediment characteristics and influence factors of upper and lower river reaches before and after impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir
  
DOI:10.11705/j.issn.1672-643X.2019.05.24
中文关键词:  水库蓄水  泥沙淤积  年径流量  水沙特性  三峡水库  长江
英文关键词:reservoir impoundment  sediment deposition  annual runoff  water-sediment characteristics  Three Gorges Reservoir  Yangtse River
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41602367); 重庆市科委基础与前沿研究计划项目(cstc2018jcyjAX0673); 重庆市教委科学技术研究项目(KJ1601017)
作者单位
毛海涛1,2, 王正成1, 林 荣3, 邹 敏4 (1.重庆三峡学院 土木工程学院 重庆 404100 2.河北工程大学 水利水电学院河北 邯郸 056038 3.巫溪县后溪河水电开发有限公司重庆 4058064.长江水利委员会水文局 长江上游水文水资源勘测局 重庆 400021) 
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中文摘要:
      泥沙淤积问题是三峡工程的关键技术问题之一,关系着长江水资源的开发利用、生态环境保护、经济发展。基于2002-2016年期间,三峡水库上、下游设置的11所重要控制性水文站水文泥沙监测资料,深入系统地探讨水文泥沙参量的变化特征,进一步分析水文泥沙参量的相关性和三峡水库的冲淤特性,探究了泥沙特性变化的原因。研究结果表明:三峡水库自施工期蓄水、初期蓄水、试验性蓄水的整个过程,对三峡水库上下游河道的水沙特性影响较大。越靠近三峡大坝的河段,受三峡水库的影响越大;三峡水库抬高水位,导致上游大部分河道流速变小,河道过水断面和水动力条件发生改变,导致入库泥沙越来越少,越来越细;三峡水库上游长江干流和支流上修建的梯级电站拦蓄了大量的泥沙,年输沙量、年均含沙量、中值粒径、年输沙模数都显著降低。年径流量和输沙量、年均含沙量、年输沙模数在2004-2013年间具有较好的相关性,曲线变化规律类似,2013年后受三峡水库蓄水的影响,出现弱相关;年径流量能表征泥沙参量的变化特性;年输沙量和年均含沙量在2002-2016年间皆具有较好的相关性。2007年前三峡水库淤积量呈增长趋势, 其后三峡水库泥沙淤积量逐渐降低。在水库冲淤和泥沙特性方面,汛期三峡水库水位对其影响较大;枯水期的高水位对其影响并不大。研究成果将为长江流域梯级电站和航道的规划设计、三峡水库的运行管理提供理论支撑。
英文摘要:
      The deposition of sediment is one of the key technical problems of the Three Gorges Project, which is related to utilization of water resources in Yangtze River, ecosystem and environmental protection and economic development. This article obtained hydrological and sediment monitoring data of 11 important control hydrological stations from 2002 to 2016 at the upper and lower reach of the Three Gorges Reservoir, systematically studied the variation characteristics of hydrology and sediment parameters, correlation between hydrologic and sediment parameters, erosion and deposition characteristics of the Three Gorges Reservoir, and explored the reasons for the change of sediment characteristics. The results showed that the water storage of the Three Gorges Reservoir includes impounding during construction, early and trial impounding, which has a great influence on the water-sediment characteristics of upper and lower reaches of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The greater the influence is the closer to the dam. The water level was raised by the Three Gorges Reservoir, which caused the velocity of most upstream rivers became smaller, river flow section and hydrodynamic condition changed, the amount of sediment was less and less, and sediment grain size was finer. Cascade hydropower stations were built on the Yangtze River and tributaries on the upper reaches of the Three Gorges Reservoir, a lot of silt has been retained, annual sediment load, annual average sediment concentration, mediansize of sediment, modulus of sediment transport decreased dramatically. Annual runoff and sediment discharge, annual average sediment concentration, modulus of sediment transport had a good correlation during 2004 - 2013, change rule of curves are similar, there was a weak correlation after the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2013. Annual runoff can characterize the change characteristics of sediment parameters. Annual sediment load and annual average sediment concentration had a good correlation during 2004 - 2013. Sediment volume of the Three Gorges Reservoir showed an increasing trend before 2007, and then sediment volumen of the Three Gorges Reservoir gradually decreased. The water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir in flood season had a great influence on the scouring and silting, sediment characteristics of reservoir, high water level in the dry season had little effect on them. The results will provide theoretical support for planning and design of cascade hydropower stations and channel in the Yangtze River Basin, operation and management of the Three Gorges Reservoir.
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