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胡光伟, 张 明, 刘 珍, 徐佳豪, 樊 姿.洞庭湖水质变化及其形成机制分析水资源与水工程学报[J].,2019,30(3):39-45
洞庭湖水质变化及其形成机制分析
Analysis of water quality change and its formation mechanism of Dongting Lake
  
DOI:10.11705/j.issn.1672-643X.2019.03.06
中文关键词:  洞庭湖  水质污染  富营养化  水沙变异  三峡工程
英文关键词:Dongting Lake  water pollution  eutrophication  runoff and sediment variations  Three Gorges Project
基金项目:湖南省社会科学基金项目 (16YBQ022); 湖南省自然科学基金项目(2017JJ3056); 湖南省社会科学成果评审委员会课题 (XSP18YBC064); 株洲市科技计划项目; 中国科学院陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室开放基金项目 (WL2016A001); 湖南工业大学教学改革项目 (2017B40)
作者单位
胡光伟1,2,3, 张 明4, 刘 珍1,2, 徐佳豪1,2, 樊 姿1,2 (1.湖南工业大学 城市与环境学院 湖南 株洲 412007 2.湖南工业大学 农牧业废弃物资源化综合利用湖南省重点实验室湖南 株洲 4120073. 中国科学院陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室 北京 100101 4. 湖南省国土资源规划院湖南 长沙 410007) 
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中文摘要:
      利用洞庭湖区14个监测断面的1991-2015年水质监测数据以及入出湖9个水文站的径流量和输沙量数据,结合水质单因子评价法和综合营养状态指数法系统评价和分析了洞庭湖水质与营养状态演变特征。结果表明:洞庭湖水质整体上表现出明显的恶化趋势,由1991-1994年的Ⅱ类水质为主演变为2011-2015年的Ⅳ水质为主;洞庭湖富营养化状态由中营养状态逐步演变为轻度富营养化,导致水质变化的关键指标是TN和TP;从空间分布看,东洞庭湖污染最为严重,西、南洞庭湖污染较轻。探讨了洞庭湖水质变化的主要致污因子,点源和面源是其两大主要污染物来源,同时还受江湖关系变化的影响,尤其是受到荆江三口来水锐减的影响。最后对治理湖区水质环境提出建议和对策,为湖区水生态安全提供理论基础和政策支持。
英文摘要:
      Based on the water quality monitoring data of 14 monitoring sections of Dongting Lake in 1991-2015 and runoff and sediment discharge monitoring data of nine hydrological stations input and output of the lake, the temporal and spatial trends of water quality and characteristics of nutrient condition evolution in Dongting Lake were analyzed using single factor's evaluation and water trophic level index (TLI). The results showed that the overall water quality of Dongting Lake showed a significant deterioration. The water quality of Dongting Lake remained at a level of Ⅳ in the years 2011-2015, and the percentages of Ⅰ-Ⅲ level declined significantly from 1991 to 1994. The eutrophication of lakes gradually became mild eutrophication, and the main pollutants were TN and TP. From the spatial distribution, eastern Dongting Lake pollution was the most serious. Western Dongting Lake and Southern Dongting Lake were less polluted. Then the formation mechanism and the highest pollution factors of water quality change in Dongting Lake were reviewed. Industrial wastewater, domestic sewage and agricultural non-point source pollution comprised the main pollution sources. At the same time, water quality change was also adversely affected by the change of river-lake relation, especially the three outlets of the Jingjiang River. A series of prevention and control measures for water quality in the Lake District was later put forward, aiming at providing some reliable theoretical basis and technical support for water quality safety in Dongting Lake.
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