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王 晨, 黄 馨, 黄晓军.西北地区城市干旱脆弱性评价研究水资源与水工程学报[J].,2019,30(1):114-121
西北地区城市干旱脆弱性评价研究
Assessment of urban drought vulnerability of Northwest China
  
DOI:10.11705/j.issn.1672-643X.2019.01.17
中文关键词:  城市干旱脆弱性  暴露度  敏感性  适应能力  西北地区
英文关键词:urban drought vulnerability  exposure  sensitivity  adaptive capacity  northwest China
基金项目:中央高校基本科研业务费项目(自然科学类)(310827171012)
作者单位
王 晨1, 黄 馨2, 黄晓军1,3 (1.西北大学 城市与环境学院 陕西 西安 710127 2.长安大学 地球科学与资源学院陕西 西安 710054 3.陕西省地表系统与环境承载力重点实验室 陕西 西安710127) 
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中文摘要:
      干旱是制约中国西北地区社会经济发展的主要自然灾害。以西北地区51个地级市(自治州、地区)为研究对象,采集社会经济统计数据、气象数据和遥感影像数据,从暴露度、敏感性、适应能力3个维度构建指标体系,运用函数模型法评价西北地区城市干旱脆弱性,揭示其空间分异特征,并应用障碍度模型识别影响城市适应能力的主要障碍因子,提出相应对策。结果表明:暴露度的高、低分布与降水量的低、高分布基本一致,适应能力空间规律性不显著,敏感性、脆弱性格局呈自东向西渐趋增加特征的趋势,敏感性格局与脆弱性格局相似;高脆弱性城市主要分布在新疆、甘肃西北部,根据脆弱性差异特征,将西北地区城市分为以下几种类型:高-高-高-高型、高-高-低-高型、低-高-高-高型、低-低-高-低型、低-低-低-低型;节水型城市、水库库容、人均水资源量是影响西北地区城市干旱适应能力的主要障碍因子。
英文摘要:
      Drought is the main disaster that restricts the social and economic development of Northwest China. Taking 51 prefecture level cities(autonomous prefecture or region)of northwest China as the research objects, by collecting socio-economic statistical data, meteorological data and RS image data, this paper constructs index system from the perspectives of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. By using function model and obstacle degree model, this paper assesses urban drought vulnerability of northwest China, reveals the spatial differentiation pattern, identifies the main obstacles affecting urban adaptive capacity and proposes countermeasures. The results are shown as follows: the degree of exposure has similar characteristics with precipitation, the spatial regularity of adaptive capacity is not obvious in spatial terms, the sensitivity and vulnerability increase from east to west, and sensitivity pattern is similar to that of vulnerability. High vulnerability cities are mainly distributed in Xinjiang Province and northwest Gansu Province, according to the characteristics of vulnerability differences, the cities of the northwest China are divided into the following types: high-high-high-high, high-high-low-high, low-high-high-high, low-low-high-low, and low-low-low-low. The main obstacles that affect urban adaptive capacity include whether it is a water-saving city, the reservoir capacity and the per capita water resources.
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